The expert on African issues said: “If we put the political developments in Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria next to the field events in Libya, Ethiopia and Nigeria, we can clearly see that the Black Continent in 1399 was one of the focal points of the silent crisis.”
Explaining the most important events in Africa in 1399, Jafar Qanadbashi, an expert on African issues, told ILNA: “In the past year, the African continent has witnessed very important developments and Sudan is one of the countries that is the focus of media and political and security circles.” Was located; In such a way that the change of Khartoum nuts was done in 1398 and the military council was trying to stabilize its position in 1399. On the other hand, the country’s officials tried to enter into relations with the United States in order to finally lift the sanctions imposed on Sudan by Washington. However, the Americans made the lifting of sanctions conditional on the establishment of a relationship between Sudan and Israel, and this was done despite all the internal opposition and protests in this country. Another issue that made Sudan the scene of developments in 1399 was the normalization of its relations with the Zionist regime. Although there was a lot of opposition inside and outside Sudan, Donald Trump’s team put pressure on Sudan to end the issue, and the result was to remove Sudan from the US terrorist list. Another point is that some Sudanese forces were sent to Libya to fight, where they fought against Faiz al-Siraj’s forces in support of General Khalifa Haftar. From this perspective, it should be said that Libya was one of the countries that had very important events last year.
He continued: “In Libya, we witnessed the beginning of a full-fledged political and military conflict between the government of the east and the west of the country.” Fighting between the forces of Caliph Haftar and the Libyan National Unity Government continued until Turkey openly and Qatar secretly entered the equation and put support for the Tripoli government on the agenda. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, France and even Russia entered the battlefield and supported Caliph Haftar. These interventions turned Libya into an arena of full-fledged political conflict as well as a field for participation. The situation deteriorated to the point that a meeting was held in Germany to resolve the dispute, but military equations and developments turned the environment into a scene of conflict of interest to such an extent that the Germans were unable to end the crisis. Discussions of political peace as well as diplomatic exchanges continued over Libya, and the differences were so great that we recently witnessed Caliph Haftar openly addressing Turkey. Following this situation, elections were held to elect a transitional government in Libya with the direct intervention of the United Nations, and it was here that the Libyan National Unity Government was formed with Prime Minister Abdul Hamid al-Dubeiba, who was recently sworn in. Accordingly, Libya should be considered the center of developments in Africa last year.
Morocco and Nigeria
“Another very important issue last year was the normalization of relations between Morocco and the Zionist regime,” he said. Although many say the two have been in a relationship for decades, the publicity of the relationship has made Morocco the focus of media attention. This normalization should be considered Donald Trump’s gift to Tel Aviv, and now the publicity of these relations has led to the conclusion of economic, military and political agreements between Tel Aviv and Rabat. Nigeria, on the other hand, should be considered one of the focal points of the African continent last year. In this country, the movements of the terrorist group Boko Haram intensified, and on several occasions we witnessed the kidnapping of students by this movement and even their terrorist attacks in Nigeria, which endangered the security of Africa. For example, on March 13, the last movement of this terrorist movement, we saw that about 30 students were abducted in northwestern Nigeria and there is still no news of their release.
He added: “From another perspective, ISIL’s attack on the UN relief center in Nigeria should be considered another important development that shows that the country is becoming a new crisis point. Note that the strengthening of Boko Haram’s presence and actions in Nigeria is partly due to the open presence of the French there, and partly related to the support of Britain and the United States. The French have very important military bases in Chad and Mali, which are coordinated with Britain and the United States in the form of NATO. On the other hand, Paris indirectly puts the policy of repression in these countries, plus Niger and Nigeria, on the agenda, which will undoubtedly challenge the security future of the region.
Following these developments, we also witnessed important political developments in Tunisia, such that a reform took place in this country and secular groups tried to marginalize the Islamists. Eventually, with the arrival of Rashid al-Ghannouchi, the situation calmed down somewhat, but threats against him continue. Last year, Tunisia witnessed several rounds of new protests that somehow remind us of 2011. In 1399, the Tunisian opposition repeatedly demanded the resignation of the Prime Minister and President of this country, but finally we saw that the President of this country, Qais Saeed, announced that he was conditionally willing to have a political dialogue with the ruling currents in this country.
Algeria and Ethiopia
“In Algeria, we witnessed the presidential election last year, and basically the ‘post-Bouteflika’ era was experienced in this country,” Qanadbashi said. The point is that the vertebrae attributed to him still exist in Algeria and act as a bone in the wound. Accordingly, resolving the problems in Algeria is far from the mind, at least in the short term, and we must wait for great changes in this country. Another geography that struggled with very important military and political developments in Africa in 1399 was Ethiopia. Clashes broke out between the Tigris states (in northern Ethiopia) and the central government led by Abi Ahmed, which left several thousand displaced and hundreds dead. The Western media boycotted much of the news of the conflict in Ethiopia because Abi Ahmed had won the Nobel Peace Prize, and now thousands of Ethiopian refugees have fled to Sudan. Accordingly, the crisis in Ethiopia has not been resolved, and in the new year we will probably see the conflict continue in a different way. On the other hand, the dispute between Ethiopia and Sudan over the Ennahda Dam case has reached dangerous points that the United Nations must enter. Therefore, if the current situation continues, there could be a full-blown crisis in the Horn of Africa.
In the end, he noted: In Egypt, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi tried to maintain peace and stability in Cairo in 1399 in favor of himself and the country’s military, and in this regard, his relations with some Arab countries such as Iraq and others to Led to strengthening, largely due to the deepening of economic relations. Of course, this communication was a kind of internal show to silence the opposition, and none of what happened in Egypt last year had a democratic theme. The holding of criminal trials against Muslim Brotherhood leaders, for example, was one of the issues that led to much criticism of Al-Sisi during his recent visit to France in the field of human rights, which will continue. Another issue was the dispute between Cairo and Turkey, in the midst of which the Muslim Brotherhood is being analyzed, with Paris seeking to strengthen Cairo against Ankara. Which looks set to continue next year.