The return of the glazed bricks of Qalaichi Buchan to the homeland

The director of the National Museum of Iran said: “The return of glazed bricks attributed to Qalaichi Buchan to Iran after three decades of legal process shows the strengthening of global understanding in the protection of human heritage.”

According to ILNA, Jibril Nokandeh (Director of the National Museum of Iran) announced the return of 49 glazed bricks attributed to Qalaichi Buchan from Switzerland: The return of glazed bricks attributed to Qalaichi Buchan to Iran after three decades of legal process shows the strengthening of global understanding in It is the protection of human heritage.

The glazed bricks of Qalaichi Buchan, which were taken out of the country in the early years of the Islamic Revolution due to illegal activities, belong to one of the centers of civilization of the Manichaean culture, 7 km northwest of Buchan city. This site was first introduced by Kleis in a 1977 introductory article and a plan was published in Kajla Ami. With the outbreak of the revolution and unrest in the region, the profiteers destroyed a large part of this ancient site and handed over the glazed bricks discovered from it to private collections and museums outside Iran.

In the spring of 1985, the General Directorate of Archeology sent Ismail Yaghmaei and his accompanying team to the area as an emergency while operating under the Ministry of Culture. The result of Yaghma’i’s work was the revelation of a plan of political-religious structures belonging to Mana. He managed to save 200 glazed bricks by excavating this area and found a 13-line inscription in ancient Aramaic script, belonging to the 8th century BC. To the Museum of Ancient Iran.

In 1989, the Ministry of Intelligence confiscated a collection of antiquities from a person named Haj Farman and handed it over to the Museum of Ancient Iran, which contained more than 170 glazed bricks of Qalaichi and part of its Aramaic inscription, which was linked to the main part discovered during the looting excavations. The text was translated and published by Rasoul Bashash from Iran and Andre Lumière from France. By translating the inscription, it was possible that Qalaichi, the same as Izirtu, was the royal city of Mana.

The bricks in the National Museum of Iran were published in book form by the National Museum of Iran in 1396 with a break of several years.

Earlier, Ali Mousavi published a part of Buchan glazed bricks in a collection in France. Some of these bricks, which came from Japanese museums, were published in various catalogs and exhibitions.

Qalaichi continued excavations in 8 seasons since 1999 under the supervision of Bahman Kargar and the result was the discovery of more than 500 pieces of broken and intact glazed bricks that were left in the archaeological context of the site and are now kept in the Urmia Museum.

The importance of the glazed bricks of Qalaichi, which coincide with the Assyrian examples of Mesopotamia, is that it is evidence of the indigenous art of the people of the western edge of the Iranian plateau during the historical beginning of Iran. Since the art and archeology of the region in this period is strongly under the hegemony of Assyria, these documents show us that the inhabitants of the Iranian plateau in this period have made serious efforts to separate their identity from the Assyrians and these beautiful works of art and They have created a technique.